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Urology

 Part 1 of 4

Chronic Medical Conditions and Urology:

METABOLIC SYNDROME 

by Dr Kgomotso Mathabe 

Dr Kgomotso Mathabe MBChB, FCUrol (SA) is the first woman to qualify in Urology from the University of the Witwatersrand and she is one of only two black female urologists in South Africa. Her special interests lie in female and paediatric incontinence and bladder pathology. She also has a keen interest in neurogenic bladder dysfunction.

What is metabolic syndrome?

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of clinical and laboratory features, namely:  

  • Hypertension (BP>135/85)
  • Impaired Glucose Metabolism
  • Hypercholestrolaemia
  • Central Obesity (Waist circumference males>102cm, females >88cm)
  • Elevated CRP (Indicating inflammation) 

 

It is also known as syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, Reaven syndrome (named after Dr Gerald Reaven, a long termdiabetes researcher, who first proposed the theory that central obesity, hypertension and diabetes had a common cause in insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, at a memorial lecture of the American Diabetes Association in 1988) and CHAOS (in Australia: Coronary artery disease, Hypertension, Atherosclerosis, Obesity and Stroke).

 The underlying mechanism is thought to be insulin resistance. This combination of features strongly predisposes to cardiovascular disease. The effects and complications of MetS on the body, have been most intensely studied on the Cardiovascular system. However, more work is being conducted on the impact of this syndrome on other systems, including the Urological system. Read more

Part 2 of 4

Chronic Medical Conditions and Urology:

DIABETES

by Dr Kgomotso Mathabe

Introduction

Diabetes mellitus, more commonly known as diabetes, is one of the chronic medical conditions which are prevalent throughout the world, with 366 million people affected globally, of which 3,6 million are in South Africa. That accounts for about 6% of the population.

It is estimated that a further 5 million South Africans have pre‐diabetes in which the glucose levels in the body are high but not high enough to qualify as diabetes. It takes on average 7 years for a person who is diabetic to be diagnosed, because the initial symptoms are subtle and non‐specific.

Symptoms of diabetes

  • Fatigue
  • Excessive thirst (polidipsia)
  • Excessive urination (poliuria)
  • Excessive appetite (poliphagia)
  • Unexplained weight gain or weight loss
  • Slow healing wounds
  • Recurrent thrush

Prevalence of diabetes by race in SA

  • Indian 11‐13%
  • Coloured 8‐10%
  • Black 5‐8%
  • White 4%

Read more